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FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM
PUBLICATION No. 87
ZOOLOGICAL SERIES. VOL. Ill, No. 14.
DESCRIPTIONS OF TWENTY-
SEVEN APPARENTLY NEW
SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES
ALL BUT SIX COLLECTED BY
D. G. ELLIOT, F. R. S. E., ETC.
Curator of Department.
CHICAGO, U. S. A.
OF TWENTY-SEVEN APPARENTLY NEW SPECIES AND
SUBSPECIES OF MAMMALS.
BY D. G. ELLIOT, F.R.S.E., ETC.
Ovis cervina *cremnobates. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Mattomi, San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower Cali-
Geogr. distr.-.. San Pedro Martir, and probably the Laguna Moun-
tains, Lower California, Mexico.
Genl. char.: Resembling the O. c. nelsoni from Grape Vine
Mountains, boundary of Nevada and Lower California, but of a much
lighter color, the head of a three-year-old ram being nearly white,
with a very small caudal patch f not divided from color of upper parts
by any perceptible line; fore part of legs almost black, similar to those
of O. stonii; head very broad between orbits, from 20 to 25 mm. broader
in old rams than the head of O. c. nelsoni; horns tyf old rams very large
and curving outward from the head; those of ewes with the points
diverging widely apart.
* X/n)f&oftaTJ)O haunter of the cliffs.
t Misled by a dressed skin which showed th-i patch and the white of inner side of thighs
together, 1 said in my previous paper, p. 209. that this caudal patch was very large, when the con-
trary is the fact.
240 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
Color: Upper parts and sides varying in individuals from drab
gray or pale broccoli brown to hair brown; in some cases this sheep
appears almost white; chest and line along ventral surface and front
of. legs black or brownish black; head and neck hair brown, darker
than back in some individuals; drab-gray in the old ram; back part
of legs and inside of hind legs, narrow line in center of ventral sur-
face, caudal patch, nose around nostrils, and inside of ears white; line
across caudal patch from tail to darker color on rump (as in all moun-
tain sheep), and the tail brownish black.
Measurements Female: Total length, 1450; tail, 120; hind foot,
375; ear, 114. Skull: total length, 283; occipito-nasal length, 226;
Hensel, 246; width between outer edge of orbits, 156; zygomatic
width, 124; length of nasals, 109; palatal length, 148; length of upper
tooth row, 84; length of half of mandible, 203; of lower tooth row, 82.
Horns: total length along curve, 310; circumference at base, 144;
spread at tip, 393. Head of old ram: total length, 330; width between
orbits, inner edge, 180; circumference of horn at base, 395; length
along outer curve, 850; spread at tips, 485.
In my paper on the Mammals of the San Pedro Martir Mountains,
I referred the specimens of mountain sheep obtained by Mr. Heller to the
O. c. nelsoni with a doubt, as I had had no opportunity to compare them
with any examples of the form described by Dr. Merriam. By the
kindness of my friend D. A. K. Fisher, Assistant Chief of the Bio-
logical Survey, who sent me a skin and skull of an old ram from the
Chuckawalla Mountains, killed in August, 1902, and referred to O. c.
nelsoni, I have been able to compare the two forms. In color this ram
is quite different from all of my thirteen specimens from the San Pedro
Martir Mountains, being very much darker, the animal being in the
"blue" coat, and is a dark brownish drab, with a very large and wide
caudal patch, and the legs are brownish in front, and not black or
blackish; in fact, more on the Ovis cervina style, while these parts in
San Pedro Martir examples are more on that of the Ovis stonii. I
regret very much that I am unable to make a comparison of the skulls
of the two large rams, but the one from the San Pedro Martir, at pres-
ent in my possession, is mounted, and has been loaned to me by Mr.
Dupee, of Chicago, who shot it, and the measurements of the head
given above are taken over the skin. The horns of the ram are longer
and heavier than those of the Chuckawalla Mountains specimen, and
stand out from the head more. The differences between the new race
and O. c. ndsoni may be summed up as follows: darker legs, more like
those of O. stonii, much smaller caudal patch grading so imperceptibly
into the color of the back as to leave no dividing line whatever; the
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 241
general color of upper parts being broccoli or hair brown instead of a
pale dingy brown ; the skull wider between orbits, and horns some-
what wider apart at tips. When a comparison of old ram skulls can
be made, other differences may be found. Mr. Heller's thirteen
examples were killed during the latter part of June and in July, and
it would be advantageous to have specimens taken at the same time of
year, as the color of the coat changes with the season somewhat,
although not to the same degree as is witnessed among the deer. All
of the thirteen specimens were females except one, a young male, no
old ram having been secured. The horns of the ewes are unusually
large for this sex, and have a wide spread at the tips. The figures
here given of the heads of the old ram and ewe (type specimen) show
very well the shape and type of the horns.
Citellus 1. *vinnulus. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Keeler, Owens Lake, Inyo County, California.
Geogr. distr.: Panamint, Coso, and Inyo Mountains to Keeler,
Owens Lake, Inyo County, California.
Gen/, char.: Nearest to C. peninsula from Lower California,
but the under part of body and tail white instead of pale yellow in the
summer pelage. It is generally darker and more vinaceous than
C. leucurus, and with a smaller hind foot; and not so dark as C. I.
cinnamomea, and the hind foot smaller.
Color: Top of head and upper parts mixed black and vinaceous,
the latter hue predominating and giving the tone to the general color;
nape and between shoulders with the hairs tipped with white, giving
to this part a gray appearance, lighter than the other parts; two rather
broad white stripes from shoulders to end of rump; shoulders, top of
fore legs and feet to toes, thighs, and upper surface of hind legs and
feet dark vinaceous; toes white on fore feet, buffy vinaceous at tips
on hind feet; sides of face and neck and entire under part of body,
legs, and feet silvery white; base of fur plumbeous; tail above like
back for basal third, remainder black with white hairs intermingled
and edged with white; under part white with a subapical black bar.
Measurements: , Total length, 215; tail vertebrae, 66; hind foot,
* Vinnulus charming.
242 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
38.5; ear, 12. Skull: total length, 37.3; Hensel, 30; zygomatic
width, 19; interorbital width, 10; length of nasals, 10.5; palatal
length, 12; length of upper tooth row, 7; length of mandible, 22;
length of lower tooth row, 7.
Strange as it may appear, this form has its nearest ally in C. I.
peninsula from Lower California, differing from that race in the char-
acters given above. The general dark coloring and the vinaceous
hind foot with its smaller measurements readily serve to distinguish it
from C. leucurus. The hind foot of the type exhibits the greatest
dimension, and the average of this member in the series before me
would be much less, as a number measure only 36, some even 35.5
mm. It seems to supplant the C. leucurus of the Mohave Desert,
and is dispersed through the mountain region between Keeler
and Death Valley. Keeler examples, like other mammals from that
locality, exhibit the deepest colors, and the race appears to be strongly
Citellus *chlorus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Palm Springs, Riverside County, California.
Geogr. distr.: Riverside and San Diego counties, California.
Gen/, char.: Size about equal to that of C. terelicaudus, but color
entirely different. Skull rather stout and heavy; tail long.
Color: Entire upper parts and sides olive gray with a brownish
sheen in certain lights; upper part of arms and thighs olive gray;
entire under parts grayish white; hands brownish, feet whitish; tail
above, basal half like back, slightly more brownish, apical half black-
ish mixed with brown and edged with white; beneath pale brown,
margined very narrowly with black and fringed with white; ears very
Measurements: Type. Total length, 255; tail, 100; hind foot, 37;
ear, 8. Extremes: total length, 230-255; tail, 88-100; hind foot,
35-37; ear, 7-8. Skull: total length, 32; Hensel, 30; interorbital
width, 8; zygomatic width, 22; width of brain case, 18; length of
nasals, 8; palatal length, 17; length of upper tooth row, 7; length of
the half of lower mandible, angle to tip of incisors, 24; length of lower
tooth row, 6.5.
This species of Citellus is not like any of the other members of
this particular group. In the entire absence of spots it resembles its
relatives, but is at once distinguished from all others by its peculiar
* %'t.opotT pale.
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 243
Citellus *eremonomus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Furnace Creek, Death Valley, Inyo County, Cali-
Genl. char.: Size small; color a darker vinaceous than that of any
other member of the unspotted group of Citellus; tail with only basal
half like that of the upper parts. Skull similar to that of C. moha-
vensis, but processes of the pterygoids do not touch the bu-llae.
Color: Upper parts grizzled vinaceous cinnamon; sides of face,
nose, and body, inner sides of legs, and entire under parts, silvery
white; fore feet pale brown, hind feet whitish; tail above, basal half
grizzled vinaceous cinnamon like the back, terminal half blackish
mixed with white hairs, and narrowly edged with white, under part
silvery white at base, remainder buff mixed with black, bordered and
tipped with black, and narrowly fringed with white. Ears very small,
similar in color to the back.
Measurements: Total length, 252; tail vertebrae, 89; hind foot,
35; ear, 8.5. Skull: total length, 36; occipito-nasal length, 35;
Hensel, 30; zygomatic width, 23; interorbital constriction, 9.5;
palatal length, 17; length of nasals, 12; length of upper tooth row, 7;
length of mandible, angle to tips of incisors, 25 ; length of lower tooth
This form in its coloring is quite different from any of those
described belonging to this particular group, and its peculiar vina-
ceous cinnamon color with the plumbeous bases of the hairs showing
through at intervals gives it a somewhat scaly, harsh appearance, more
like the members of the harrisi group, but without any stripe. It was
not common in the locality in which it was taken, for Mr. Heller, who
collected the specimens, was able to secure only three individuals.
Onychomys pulcher. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Morongo Pass, San Bernardino Mountains, California.
Genl. char.: Color pale, size medium.
Color: Upper parts buff, inclining to pinkish, darker on rump,
where the tint becomes almost a salmon buff; nose, sides of face, lips,
entire under parts, legs, and feet, pure white; tail above soiled white,
sides and under parts white; ears whitish at base, in life probably
* spyftovofjLOff living in a desert.
244 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
flesh color, apical half brownish black ; a tuft of whitish hairs covers
the base of ear. Orbital ring black.
Measurements: Total length, 150; tail vertebrae, 55; hind foot,
21 ; ear, 18.5. Skull: total length, 25.5; Hensel, 20; zygomatic
width, 13.5; interorbital constriction, 5; length of nasals, 9; palatal
length, 10 ; length of upper tooth row, 4; length of mandible, 15;
length of lower tooth row, 4.
This is a pale Onychomys, not exactly resembling any other species.
It is about the size of O, macrotis from Lower California, but quite
different in color. It is a desert form as well as a mountain-dweller,
and ranges from the Morongo Pass through the Mohave Desert to
Lone Pine, and is also found on the Coso Range. It is a very pretty
species, with its peculiar pinkish and salmon buff coloring.
Peromyscus *petraius. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Lone Pine, Inyo County, California.
Genl. char.: Similar to P. auripectus, but paler; tail much darker,
foot smaller, no pectoral spot.
Color: Head and uppef parts ochraceous buff lined with black ;
side paler; lips, face beneath eyes, lower part of flanks, hands, ahd
feet white; base of fur plumbeous; tail hairy, dusky or blackish
above, beneath whitish; ears brownish black, base covered by a tuft
of ochraceous buff hairs.
Measurements: Total length, 177; tail vertebrae, 98; hind foot,
20.5; ear, 20. Skull: total length, 24; Hensel, 18; zygomatic width,
12; interorbital constriction, 4; palatallength, 9; greatest width of
brain case, 7; length of upper molar series, 3; length of mandible,
angle to tips of incisors, 13; length of lower tooth row, 3.
This mouse is allied to P. auripectus, Allen, but can be readily
distinguished from that species by its paler coloration, darker tail, and
smaller foot, the average length of this member in fifteen examples
Peromyscus parasiticus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Lone Pine, Inyo County, California.
Genl. char.: similar to P. r. pinalis, but larger in all of its dimen-
sions. Skull with larger rostrum, longer nasals, broader between
orbits, and larger, differently shaped brain-case.
Color: Top of head and dorsal region dusky cinnamon, becoming
* TtSTpatoff frequenting rocks.
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 245
pale cinnamon on sides of face beneath eyes; shoulders, flanks, and
sides of rump, lips, sides of nose, lower part of flanks, thighs, hands
and feet, and entire under parts white; base of fur plumbeous; tail
above dusky, beneath yellowish white.
Measurements: Total length, 214; tail vertebrae, 119'; hind foot, .
23.5; ear 20.5. Skull: total length, 28; Hensel, 19; zygomatic
width, 13; interorbital constriction, 4.5; width of brain-case, 12.5;
length of brain-case, 14; palatal length, u; length of nasals, u;
length of upper tooth row, 4; length of mandible, angle to tip of incis-
ors, 16; length of lower tooth row, 4.
With a coloring very like that of P. r. pinalis, the great difference
in size of skull and shape of brain-case, together with the geographical
distribution, shows that the two animals represent forms that are quite
separate from each other. These specimens were taken at the base
of the mountains at about 4,000 feet elevation, and no individuals
were seen either in the high mountains or on the desert. It would
appear to be local in its habitat. In a certain way, according to Mr.
Heller, it is something of a parasite, frequenting and taking posses-
sion, when possible, of the nest of the wood rats (Neotoma) dwelling
in the same region. It is on account of this trait in its character that
I have given it the above specific name.
Peromyscus *metallicola. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Providentia Mines, Northwestern Sonora, Mexico.
Genl. char.: Similar to P. eremicus, but tail hairy and with a
pencil; sides deep orange buff, instead of pale fulvous.
Color: Upper parts mixed black and orange buff; forehead and
nose gray and buff mixed: sides of face, shoulders, sides, and rump
about base of tail deep orange buff; orbital ring black; lips and entire
under parts, hands, and feet pure white; tail above dusky, sides
beneath white; ears brown.
Measurements: Total length, 190.5; tail vertebrae, 101.6; hind
foot, 25. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 26; Hensel, 20; zygomatic
width, 13; interorbital constriction, 4.5; width of brain-case, 12;
length of nasals, 10; palatal length,, 10.5; length of upper tooth row,
4; length of mandible, angle to alveolus of incisor, 10; length of lower
tooth row, 4.
This mouse, with a general resemblance to P. eremicus, is strik-
ingly different in having the tail thickly covered with hair and a pencil
at the tip, while the tail of the species compared is naked. The buff
* Metallicola, a dweller in a mine.
246 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
colors are much brighter and deeper, altogether of an orange instead
of a pale fulvous hue. A series was procured at the type locality by
Mr. J. Rowley.
Rhithrodontomys catalinae. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Saint Catalina Island, Santa Barbara Islands, Cali-
Gen/, char.: Similar to R. longicauda, but larger; hind foot very
Color: Top of head and dorsal region brownish black or buff
mixed, black predominating; sides cream buff; indistinct cream buff
lateral line; under parts, hands, and feet white, plumbeous of under
fur showing through on under parts; large cream buff spot on breast;
tail above blackish, beneath soiled white; ears brown.
Measurements: Total length, 155.7; tail vertebrae, 83.8; hind foot,
While resembling in its coloring the well-known R. longicaudus
from the coast region of California, the present form is characterized
by its larger size, as shown in all the measurements, the length of the
hind foot being especially noticeable.
Neotoma fuscipes mohavensis. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Ore Grande, Mohave Desert, Kern County, Cali-
Genl. char. : Smaller than JV. f. macrotis, more grayish in color,
and with a smaller foot.
Color: Upper parts dark drab gray, darkest on top of the head
and on the dorsal line; sides paler, inclined to buffy; fore legs buffy
gray; thighs dark gray or light plumbeous; chin, throat, inner side of
fore legs and thighs, and ventral region with the lower part of thighs,
hands and feet white; hairs on sides plumbeous at base, all the others
on under parts white to the roots; tail above blackish brown, beneath
whitish brown, line of demarcation very distinct; ears naked, dark
Measurements: Total length, 384; tail vertebrae, 173; hind foot,
40; ear from notch, 31. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 47; Hensel,
39 J zygomatic width, 24; interorbital constriction, 5 ; length of nasals,
16; palatal length, 21; length of upper tooth row, 9; length of man-
dible, angle to tips of incisors, 31; length of lower tooth row, 8.
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 247
This desert rat is noticeable for its gray color, with hardly any
red showing, so often conspicuous in its relative N. f. macrotis. It
would seem to be the desert representative of that race. Mr. Heller
found it only at .the type locality where seven specimens were taken,
and the extent of its distribution has not been ascertained.
Neotoma desertorum grandis. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Cameron Lake, Sierra Nevada, Kern County, Cali-
Genl. char.: Similar to N. desertorum, but larger; tail more hairy
and blacker above.
Color: Upper parts mixed buff and black; sides and thighs brighter
buff with less black; nose and sides of face buff; under parts and feet
white; under fur along sides and thighs plumbeous; hairs on throat,
chest, and middle of ventral surface white to the roots; tail very hairy,
black above, white beneath; ears pale brown, tuft of buff hairs at base
succeeded by a band of black hairs near middle of ear.
Measurements: Total length, 385; tail, 185; hind foot, 38; ear,
30. Skull: total length, 47; Hensel, 40; zygomatic width, 23; inter-
orbital constriction, 6; length of nasals, 17; palatal length, 21; length
of upper tooth row, 8; length of mandible, angle to tip of incisors,
30; length of lower tooth row, 9.
This is a large rat, equaling in size N. f. streatori, but with the
coloring of N. desertorum, and a larger hind foot than that species; in
fact, the two specimens from Cameron Lake are exactly alike in
appearance with topotypes from Furnace Creek, Death Valley, except
the black tail, but the gfeat size at once separates them from the
longer known species. The skull, save in its greater dimensions,
offers no particular differences from that of N. desertorum.
Teonoma cinerea *acraia. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Hot Springs, Long Canon, Mount Whitney, Inyo
County, California. Altitude 8,000 feet.
Genl. char.: Similar to T. cinerea, but much paler, tail paler, foot
Color: Upper parts pinkish buff lined with black on top of head and
dorsal region, lightest on rump; sides of face and flanks pinkish buff
with very little black showing; this color extending over shoulders
* axpatoff dwelling on the hills.
248 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
and thighs; orbital ring black; entire under parts, hands, and feet
white; base of fur on sides only, plumbeous; tail above like back,
slightly darker towards tip, beneath yellowish white; ears naked, dark
brown; soles of feet naked.
Measurements: Total length, 360; tail vertebrae, 150; hind foot,
40; ear, 33.5. Skull: total length, 45.5; Hensel, 40; zygomatic
width, 25; interorbital constriction, 6; width of brain-case above
roots of zygomata, 19; palatal length, palatal arch to alveolus of
incisor, 22; length of upper tooth row, alveolar border, 9; length of
mandible, angle to tips of incisors, 31; length of lower tooth row,
alveolar border, 9.
This wood rat is of a very much paler color than T. cinerea, the tail
being especially noticeable for its light hue when placed among speci-
mens of the typical form. The skull presents no differences worthy of
remark. This rat was procured by Mr. Heller at high elevations,
8,000-11,000 feet on Mt. Whitney, and on the Inyo Mountains, the
higher range being on the last named, where it was more numerous at
Thomomys *scapterus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Hannopec Cafton, Panamint Mountains, Inyo County,
Geogr. distr.: Panamint, Inyo and Coso mountains, Inyo County,
Gen/, char.: Similar to T. operarius, but much darker in color,
and with much shorter nasals.
Color: Upper parts and side wood brown, heavily lined with black
on top of head and dorsal region, in some specimens nearly forming a
dorsal band, but in the type this part is more uniform with the side,
'the back being less heavily lined with black; lower sides and entire
under parts white, the plumbeous under fur showing through; hands
and feet whitish; tail unicolor, white; ears and small spot behind ear
Measurements: Total length, 229; tail vertebrae, 74; hind foot, 29;
ear, 6. Skull: total length, 37; Hensel, 33; zygomatic width, 23;
interorbital constriction, 6; greatest width of brain case, 9; palatal
* sxanrqp a digger.
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 249
length, 33; length of nasals (median), 10; anterior width of nasals, 5;
length of mandible, angle to alveoli of incisors, 24.
This gopher is distributed along the bases of the mountain ranges
named above, but does not go out on to the desert, nor west of the
Inyo Mountains. Its dark coloring will distinguish it at all times from
T. operarius, which seems to be its nearest relative.
SUB. FAM. DIPODOMYIN^E.
Dipodomys deserti helleri. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Keeler, Owens Lake, Inyo County, California.
Genl. char. : Size similar to that of D. deserti, color pale ochra-
ceous instead of pale yellowish brown ; upper part of tail like back
with no black markings, no black on face.
Color: Upper parts pale ochraceous or dark pinkish buff; of a
similar tint, but not so dark as are the upper parts of D. nitratus; line
over eyes, sides of nose and forepart of face, entire under parts, limbs,
and feet pure white; tail with line above pale ochraceous like back,
becoming ochraceous near tip, sides and under part and tip pure
white; ear same color as back.
Measurements: Total length, 333; tail 195; hind foot, 53^5; ear,
16. Skull: total length, 43; Hensel, 37; zygomatic width, 21; width
of mastoids, 29; greatest width of parietals, 20; length of nasals, 14;
palatal length, 14; length of upper tooth row, 5; length of mandible,
condyle to tip of incisors, 21 ; length of lower tooth row, 5.
A series of this form from Keeler, collected by Mr. Heller, pre-
sents the same differences from typical D. deserti as D. nitratus from
the same locality does from D. m. simiolus. It is much redder, lacks
entirely the pale yellowish brown hue of D. deserti, and has no black or
dusky hue upon the tail. I have much pleasure in naming this well-
marked race after Mr. E. Heller, whose work in the field has con-
tributed so greatly to the enlargement of the mammal collections of
Dipodomys m. *arenivagus. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: San Felipe, Lower California, Mexico.
Genl. char.: Size small; similar to D. m. simiolus, but paler; ear
Arena, sand; vagor. to wander.
250 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
larger, hind foot shorter; skull narrower across mastoids and parietals;
Color: Upper parts pinkish buff, palest on the head and darkest
on rump, the plumbeous under fur showing in places; no black streaks
on face; white spots behind ears and above eyes; upper parts of sides
from eye to rump, like color of rump; nose, sides of face, lower part
of flanks, entire under parts and limbs, pure white; a narrow line of
pinkish buff across thighs; hands yellowish white, feet white; tail with
a bushy pencil, the upper parts to tip pale drab, sides and beneath
white; ears naked, yellowish.
Measurements: Type. Total length, 225; tail vertebras, 134; hind
foot, 36; ear, 15. Average of ten specimens: total length, 234.7;
tail, 137.3; hind foot, 36.7; ear, 14.1. Skull: total length, posterior
line of mastoids to anterior end of nasals, 34; Hensel, 20; zygomatic
width, 15 ; width of mastoids, 22 ; greatest width of parietals, 15 ; length
of nasals, 12; greatest width of rostrum, 5; palatal length, n; length
of upper tooth row, 3 ; length of mandible, condyle to tip of incisors,
16; length of lower tooth row, 3.
In my paper on the Mammals of the San Pedro Martir Mountains
(Field Museum Publication, Vol. III., p. 220), I referred the ten speci-
mens of Dipodomys from San Felipe and Canon Esperanza to D. m.
simiolus. Since that paper was issued, I have received from Mr. E.
Heller, series of Dipodomys from Palm Springs (Agua Caliente), and
Whitewater, type localities of D. m. simiolus and D. m. similis respect-
ively. On comparing the Lower California examples with these, it is
at once seen that the Mexican animal is lighter and more pink in color,
very much smaller in all its measurements, and is without the dark
streak on the lower side of the tail. These ten specimens represent a
well-marked diminutive race of D. merriami, nearest allied to D. m.
Dipodomys merriami mortivallis. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Furnace Creek, Death Valley, Inyo County, Cali-
Genl. char.: Similar to D. m. simiolus, but the dorsal and
ventral stripes and pencil of the tail vary from a purplish drab to a
pale russet, quite different from the blackish tail of D. m. simiolus.
The general color of the upper parts of the body is darker than that
of the sub-species just named. The skulls of the two forms are much
alike, save the new race has much longer and broader nasals widening
at the anterior end; the extreme width of the parietals is greater, and
the mastoids are broader.
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 251
Color: Type $. Above russet, darkest on the rump, the plumbe-
ous under fur showing occasionally in places; sides dark russet; spots
behind ear, superciliary stripe, face in front of eye, nose, entire under
parts, stripe across thigh, and feet pure white; inner side of thighs
deep russet like the rump; black bar across rump; tail bushy on apical
third, with dorsal and ventral stripe pale russet; sides white; ears
russet. Other specimens from Furnace Creek have the tail a purplish
drab on the dorsal and ventral stripes, and also the bushy portion or
pencil ; but all the examples have the broad, long nasals and other
characters of the skull mentioned above.
Measurements: Type, total length, 240; tail, 142; hind foot 37.5 ;
ear, 14. Extremes: total length, 240-260; tail, 142-160; hind foot,
37.5-40; ear, 12-15. Skull: total length, anterior end of nasals to
outer margin of mastoid, 36; Hensel, 22; greatest width across mas-
toids, 22; least interorbital width, 13; width of interparietal at mas-
toids, 17; length of nasals, 13; posterior width, 2; anterior width, 3;
length of upper tooth row, 3.5; height at coronoid process from
This Kangaroo rat is probably nearest to D. m. simiolus, but is of
a deeper color, and has a differently colored tail and much longer
nasals. It appears to be restricted to the Death Valley region.
Perognathus *mesembrinus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Palm Springs.
Gen/, char.: Color pale; tail hairy; pencil large, bushy; size
Color: Upper parts mixed drab gray [and buff; no lateral line;
thighs like back ; lips, entire under parts, fore legs, fore and hind feet
white; tail above and pencil brownish drab, beneath whitish; ears
dark brown, bases covered with tufts of drab gray.
Measurements: Total length, 195; tail vertebrae, 114; hind foot,
23; ear, n. Skull: total length, 21; Hensel, 18; zygomatic width,
13; interorbital constriction, 7; mastoid width, 14; greatest parietal
width, 10.5; length of mastoids, 9: palatal length, 10; length of
nasals, 9.4; length of upper tooth row, 4; length of mandible, 12.5;
length of lower tooth row, 3.5.
This is a small pale desert form nearest allied probably to P.
formosus from Death Valley. The skull, while considerably shorter
than that of the species just named, is equally broad, and with the
* fieffefJLjSpwoff South or southern, southern representative of P. formosus.
252 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
same large mastoids. Like P. formosus it is also on the borderland
ot Perognathus and Chatodipus, the mastoids protruding beyond the
occiput just enough to retain it in Perognathus. Of the two forms,
however, the present one has the mastoids projecting the farthest
beyond the occiput, and the bullse in both are large and widely sepa-
rated anteriorly. A series of the new species was obtained at Palm
Springs, which would seem to be its northern limit, but it evidently
goes into Lower California; for one specimen from Mattomi on the
edge of the desert, collected by Mr. Heller, and which in my paper
on the San Pedro Martir mammals, I had referred to P.fallax, proved,
on comparison, to belong to this species.
Perognathus *elibatus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Mount Pinos, Los Angeles County, California, alti-
tude 5,000 feet.
Genl. char. : Size small ; color dark ; tail long.
Color: Upper parts black and buff, the former color predominat-
ing; nose, sides of face, line over eye, and lateral line cream buff;
under parts, hands, and feet white; tail, basal half above buff tinged
with dusky, remainder dusky, beneath yellowish white ; ears brown,
white spot on each side of margin near notch; whiskers black; line on
side of nose black.
Measurements: Total length, 146; tail, 77; hind foot, 20.5; ear, 7.
Skull: total length, 22; Hensel, 15; zygomatic width, n; interorbital
constriction, 5; mastoid width, 12; greatest width of parietals, 9;
length of nasals, 7; palatal length, 8; length of upper tooth row, 3;
length of mandible, angle to end of incisors, n ; length of -lower tooth
This is a very distinct species of Perognathus, belonging to the
Panamintinus group, but very much darker in color than any other
form, being almost black on the upper parts. Mr. Heller obtained a
series in a valley on Mount Pinos at an elevation of 5,000 feet, the
only place in which the species was found. It dwells among the pines,
evidently only at high elevations.
Perognathus fpericalles. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Keeler, Owens Lake, Inyo County, California.
Genl. char. : Size small ; colors very pale ; ear rather large.
. Color: Entire upper parts deep cream buff tinged with reddish,
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 253
darkest on head and rump; sides paler cream buff ; upper lip and entire
under parts white; feet buffy white; tail above pale brown, beneath
yellowish white; ear pale brown, with a buffy tuft of hair at base.
Measurements: Total length, 130; tail vertebrae, 73; hind foot,
19; ear, 6.5. Skull: total length, 21.5; Hensel, 14.5; zygomatic
width, ii ; interorbital width, 5; mastoid width, 12; greatest width of
parietals, 10; length of interparietal, 2.5; length of nasals, 8.4; pala-
tal length, 7.5; length of upper tooth row, 4; length of mandible,
angle to tips of incisors, 16.5; length of lower tooth row, 3.
This is a very beautiful little species with the rich coloring so
prevalent in the mammals from Keeler. It is not unlike the rich hues
of the species of Dipodomys from the same locality, and also of that
which I consider the summer pelage of P. stephensi from Death
Valley. This new sp*ecies must be very rare, as Mr. Heller was able
to procure only two examples.
Perognathus hispidus maximus. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Noble, Oklahoma Territory.
Gen/, char.: Similar to P. h. paradoxus, but brighter in color;
hind foot and other dimensions larger. Skull longer, parietals wider;
interparietal longer; mastoids wider.
Color: Upper parts mixed ochraceous and black, the latter color
predominating; lateral line from nose to rump including shoulder and
upper part of fore and hind legs very bright ochraceous buff; face and
orbital region bright ochraceous buff, lightly lined with black; under
parts, hands, and feet white; tail above blackish brown, sides buff,
beneath white; ear buff on outside, dusky inside.,
Measurements: Total length, 243^ tail vertebrae, no; hind foot,
29. Average of five specimens: total length, 232; tail vertebrae,
109.4; hind foot, 27.8. Skull: total length, 34; Hensel, 25; zygomatic
width, 16.5; mastoid width, 16; length of parietal, 5; greatest width
of parietals, 14; length of nasals, 10.5; palatal length, 14; length of
upper tooth row, 5; length of mandible, angle to tip of incisors, 20;
length of lower tooth row, 4.
While resembling P. h. paradoxus, the present race is easily dis-
tinguished from that form by its bright colors and greater size, the
latter indeed making it quite conspicuous when compared with its
nearest relatives. A series of these was obtained by Mr. Surber in
Oklahoma Territory, which were referred in my paper (Pub. Field
Columb. Mus. , 1899, I., p. 300) to P. h. paradoxus, from which it
seems entitled to be separated as a distinct race.
254 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
Lepus* laticinctus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Ore Grande, Mohave Desert, Kern County, Cali-
Genl. char.: Desert form, much paler than either L. auduboni
or L. a. sanctidiegi, with a much paler nape, a dark band across thighs,
and soles of feet bistre, and the nasals shorter on the median line.
Color: Upper part of head and dorsal region pinkish buff, the
black bases of the hairs showing, giving these parts a streaked appear-
ance of black and pinkish buff; nape pale taWhy ochraceous; rump
french gray (No. 10 of Ridgway, plate II), darkest in the middle;
sides cream buff; broad band in front of thighs like dorsal region;
sides of head mixed buff and black; orbital ring pale buff; pectoral
band buff; lips, throat, and rest of under parts, under parts of fore
legs, and upper part of hind legs and feet white, with some white on fore
feet about toes; soles of all feet bistre; tail above blackish, the hairs
tipped with buff; beneath white; ears externally mixed buff and black,
with the edges white, internally lead color, nearly naked.
Measurements: Tolal length, 395; tail vertebrae, 62; hind foot,
88; ear, 79. Skull: total length, 70; Hensel, 53; interorbital width,
19; median length of nasals, 20; lateral length of nasals, 29; posterior
width of nasals, 14; anterior width of nasals, 9; palatal length, 25;
length of upper tooth row, 1 1 ; length of mandible, angle to tips of
incisors, 54; length of lower tooth row, alveolar border, 13.
This appears to be a very distinct form, quite different in colora-
tion from any described, and is easily recognizable by its pale hue and
the bands in front of thighs and the dark soles of the feet. It was
procured only at one locality by Mr. Heller, Ore Grande, where a
small series was obtained.
Lepus 1. rufipes. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Furnace Creek, Death Valley, Inyo County, Cali-
Genl, char.: Similar to L. laticinctus^ but paler and smaller; soles
of feet russet; ear shorter.
Color: Upper parts buffy white ; the base of fur lead color, then
* Latus, broad cinctus a band.
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 255
pale brown and hairs tipped with white, which gives the general hue to
the upper parts; nape buff, darkest on lower part; top of head like
back; sides grayish white; faint brown stripes in front of thighs; rump
pale gray ; upper part of fore legs, lower part of shoulders and thighs,
and soles of feet, russet; pectoral band pale buff; entire under parts
and upper surface of hind feet white, base of fur plumbeous; ears
mixed buff and black, edges white; tail above similar to rump, beneath
Measurements: Total length, 355; tail vertebrae, 59; hind foot,
85; ear, 74. Skull: total length, 66; Hensel, 50; zygomatic width,
32; interorbital width, 16; median length of nasals, 15; lateral length
of nasals, 25 ; anterior width of nasals, 7 ; posterior width of nasals,
12; palatal length, 24; length of upper tooth row, 11.5; length of
lower tooth row, 10.
This race while having a general resemblance to L. laticinctus from
the Mohave Desert, can be recognized at once by the reddish hue of
the soles of the feet and upper part of fore legs. It is also consider-
ably smaller. The race seems to be restricted to Death Valley, as
the rabbit of the Panamints and neighboring ranges apparently rep-
resents a different race.
Lepus 1. *perplicatus. Subsp. nov.
Type locality: Hannopec Canon, Panamint Mountains, Inyo
County, southeastern California.
Geogr. distr.: Panamint, Coso and Inyo mountains, Inyo County,
California. Altitude 7,500 feet.
Genl. char.-: Similar to L. laticinctus and L. I, rufipes, but smaller
than the former and larger than the latter, with the soles of the feet
Prout's brown. Ear shorter in proportion to other dimensions.
Color: Upper parts similar to those of L. laticinctus; rump dark
gray with the hairs tipped with white; upper part of fore legs vina-
ceous cinnamon; soles of feet Prout's brown; pectoral band dark
buff; throat whitish plumbeous; rest of under parts white.
Measurements: Total length, 380; tail vertebrae, 69; hind foot, 98;
ear, 73. Skull: total length, 64.5; Hensel, 49; zygomatic width, 33;
interorbital width, 16; median length of nasals, 17; lateral length of
nasals, 21; anterior width of nasals, n; length of upper tooth row, 8;
length of lower tooth row, 9.
This race, found at a high elevation on the mountains, is in some
respects intermediate between L. laticinctus and L. I. rufipes, both
* Perplicatus, intermingled.
256 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZoftLOCY, VOL. III.
desert forms. In size it is nearest to the first named, and it may have
a darker pelage, but as all the five specimens procured are in process
of change it is difficult to say what the color of the perfect dress
exactly is. It is considerably larger than L, 1. rufipes, with a shorter
ear, and soles of the feet colored differently from those of the other
Vulpes *arsipus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Daggett, San Bernardino County, California.
Genl. char.: Similar to V. macrotis, but paler and smaller, post-
orbital processes longer; pterygoid fossa narrower.
Color: Top of head mixed pale gray and brownish fulvous, more
brownish and darker than the back ; upper parts of body pale grizzled
gray, paler on the sides, where the gray grades into buff; outer sides
of fore legs and thighs, and down outside of hind legs to the toes pale
fulvous; narrow pectoral collar pale fulvous; black patch on sides of
nose from eye, and one on either side of chin; brown post-ocular
stripe; under parts, inner side of thigh, and front of hind legs
whitish, tail above pale gray, tinged with buff/ beneath buffy, tip
brownish black; ears externally pale cinnamon and narrowly edged
Measurements: Total length, 810; tail vertebrae, 310; hind foot,
128; ear from notch, 86. Skull: occipito-nasal length, 103; Hensel,
104; zygomatic width, 61 ; interorbital constriction, 20.5; across post-
orbital processes, 28; palatal length, 56; length of nasals, 39; length
of upper molar series, anterior edge of first premolar to posterior
edge of last molar, 44; length of mandible, 82.5; length of lower
molar series, 47.5.
This fox is an inhabitant of the Mohave Desert, and Mr. Heller
secured a series at various localities from Daggett north to Wild Rose
Spring at the base of the Panamint Mountains. It is paler and smaller
than the other described forms, and does not seem to have the red-
dish summer pelage characteristic of V. macrotis and V. hebes (hebe?)
of Calgary, Alberta, the present form apparently retaining its pale
grayish pelage throughout the year. Daggett was the most southern
point in the Mohave Desert where this fox was seen by Mr. Heller.
* dpffdtouff swift of foot.
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 257
Ursus *hylodromus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Alberta, Northwest Territory.
Genl. char.: Skull: forehead prominent; elevated above face,
highest part of brain-case slightly anterior to a line from the roots of
the zygomata; frontals broad at post-orbital processes; outline of nasals
concave, the posterior portion curving upwards on to the frontals,
similar to the nasals of U. altifrontalis and U. machetes, but in a less
degree ; brain-case bulging on sides to a greater extent than that of
either of the species named; zygomatic arches only moderately
expanded ; narial opening very large, wide and evenly rounded infe-
riorly; occipital crest prominent; bullae wider than long, the tubular
meatus much elongated and narrow; pterygoid fossa broad, narrowest
anteriorly at palatal arch, the processes rather short, broad, and their
tips turned inwards; palate of nearly equal width for the entire length
between the tooth rows, contracting after last molar gradually to the
pterygoids; basioccipital flat and very broad, sides low; mandible
very heavy ; upper outline of coronoid process curving downward pos-
teriorly and forming a hook.
Measurements: Total length, 312; occipito-nasal length, 257;
Hensel, 270; zygomatic width, 173; width at post-orbital processes,
96; width between orbits, 69; greatest breadth of brain-case, 102;
length of nasals, 76; width anteriorly, 30; width posteriorly, 12;
greatest width of narial opening, 50; height of narial opening, 41;
width of basioccipital, 47; of basisphenoid, 36; length of pterygoid
fossa, 46; anterior width, 16; median width, 25; posterior width at
pterygoid processes, 24; palatal length, 153; width between last
molars, 45 ; between canines at posterior edge, 45 ; between outer
edges at palatal arch, 36; length of three upper molars, alveolar border,
67; length of mandible, 217; depth of mandible at middle of second
molar, 37.5; height at coronoid process, 88; width of coronoid process
above condyle, 57; breadth of coronoid process beneath hook, 41;
breadth at hook, 40 ; length of three lower molars, alveolar border, 65.
No skin preserved.
This black bear is nearest allied to the Ursus altifrontalis from
the Olympic Mountains, and the skulls have a general resemblance,
with the characters of the present form much less accentuated. It
* blo-dpofjiuo wood-ranging.
758 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
has a high and broad forehead, but nevertheless it is lower and nar-
rower than in the western species; the brain-case, however, is much
wider and more swollen, and the zygomatic arches much less spread as
the measurements show 173 to 185 ; the basioccipital and basisphenoid
are much flatter, and the pterygoid fossa much wider, particularly at
the posterior end, with the tips of the pterygoid processes turning
inward instead of outward, as in U. altifrontalis; the palate is wider
throughout its length, and does not become narrow anteriorly as in
the species just named. In comparison with the eastern black bear
(Wisconsin and Maine), the forehead is considerably more elevated,
and the brain-case much broader; the nasals are longer and elevated
posteriorly; the narial opening much broader and flatter on the inferior
border; the pterygoid fossa much wider and the tips of the processes
turn inward and not outward. The differences are similar to those
which characterized the new form when compared with the Pacific
Coast black bears, placing U. hylodromus between the two. The east-
ern black bear, however, has the forehead nearly on a line with the
face, and in this respect differs from both of its relatives, and pos-
sesses also a comparatively long and narrow brain-case, in the latter
peculiarity not unlike that of U. altifrontalis, while the new form has the
brain-case equally long, but bulging outward posterior to the fronto-
parietal suture. The shape of the coronoid process of the mandible
of the eastern black bear skull is very different from both of these
others, the posterior outline being nearly straight from the condyle to
the tip, and entirely without the downward curve at the tip so con-
spicuous in the other two species. The horizontal portion of the
mandible of U. hylodromus is deeper and heavier than either of the
Bassariscus albipes. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Near Vera Cruz, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico.
Gen/, char.: Size large, color dark, feet white. Skull long,
narrow, nasals pointed posteriorly (rounded in B. astutus and B. a.
raptor], and considerably depressed in the middle, causing the outline
to be concave, as the posterior portion ascends to the frontals; the
brain-case is rather narrow for its length, and does not widen posteri-
orly equal to that of B. astutus;' the pterygoid fossa is long and rather
broad, and the processes of the pterygoids are thickened and heavy,
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 259
very different from the slender processes of the species compared;
infraorbital foramina very large and triangular in shape; palate
anteriorly much broader for its length than either of the other forms;
post-orbital processes short.
Color: Upper parts very dark gray, the hairs being yellowish at
base and tipped with black, the dark color predominating to such an
extent on the dorsal region that this part seems in certain lights all
black; sides of neck and body slightly paler; top of head nearly black
like the back, mixed slightly with white and buff hairs; above the eye
for the posterior three-fourths is a buff spot connecting posteriorly
with a buff stripe that runs under the eye to the nose; black band in
front of eye; end of nose blackish brown; muzzle black; upper lip
buff; chin and throat buff; rest of under parts yellowish white; shoul-
ders like back; upper parts of fore and hind legs brownish gray; fore
feet white or very pale yellowish white, this hue extending up the out-
side to beyond wrist; under side of legs yellowish white; hind feet
with terminal part and toes whitish. Tail very long with alternating
white and black rings, and tip black ; the black rings much broader
than the white and not meeting beneath. Ears, basal half black,
remainder white; whiskers very long, jet black.
Measurements: Total length, 870; tail, 425; hind foot, 80. Skull:
total length, 89; occipito-nasal length, 80; Hensel, 80; zygomatic
width, 53; interorbital constriction, 17; post-orbital constriction, 18;
width across post-orbital processes, 25.5; greatest width of brain-
case, 36; length of nasals, 20.5; mastoid width, 36; length of ptery-
goid fossa, 18; palatal length, 37.5; width of palate between last
molars, 12; between canines, 10.5; length of upper tooth row from
anterior edge of canine, alveolar border, 34; length of canine, n;
length of mandible, 55; height at coronoid process, 23; at angle, 9;
length of lower tooth row, molar series alveolar border, 27; from
anterior edge of canine, 34.
This is a large form of Bassariscus, with a dark, almost black,
pelage in certain lights on the upper parts, and with a much longer tail
than any other described species, and with conspicuously white feet
tinged with yellow. In general appearance it does not seem to re-
semble very closely any of the known raccoon foxes. A single specimen
was obtained by Mr. Buxton near Vera Cruz, Mexico.
260 FIELD COLUMBIAN MUSEUM ZOOLOGY, VOL. III.
Gulo *luteus. Sp. nov.
Type locality: Mount Whitney.
Geogr. distr.: Mount Whitney to Yukatat Bay(?), Alaska.
Genl. char. : General color of hind part of head, sides, and base
of tail, buff color.
Color: Nose, lips, cheeks back to and including eyes, jet black;
top of head and back of eyes pale gray; nape and space between
shoulders chestnut; lower part of back and rump seal brown in the
center, grading to chestnut on the edges ; band across middle of back
encircling the dark patch, and sides buff color; under parts blackish
chestnut with small white spots on throat; legs and feet black; tail,
basal half buff, remainder black ; ears chestnut, with broad buff edging.
Measurements: Immature. Total length, 850; tail vertebrae, 205;
hind foot, 165; ear, 53.
This is a pale species of wolverine, strikingly different from the
well-known animal that up to this time has represented the genus
Gulo. The type specimen is an immature male, but the trappers and
ranchmen told Mr. Heller that although the creature was rare, yet
occasionally one was killed, and the old ones were exactly like the
present specimen. This statement is probably correct, for the young
of Gulo luscus resemble their parents in coloration. When I was last
in Alaska with the Harriman expedition I obtained at Yukatat Bay a
skin of a pale-colored adult wolverine, which I was inclined to regard
as a freak specimen.
The exact locality of its capture was not known, and the trader
from whom it was bought could not say whether the specimen was
taken in the vicinity of Yukatat bay or brought from a distance. I
brought it back and put it in the collection with other wolverine skins.
On comparing the Mount Whitney specimen with this one from Alaska,
it was at once seen they were exactly alike in their coloring, and in the
distribution of the hues ; the buff base of the tail and the sides and the jet
black muzzle and fore part of head being especially conspicuous. The
Yukatat' example is fully adult and about the size of an ordinary Gulo
luscus, and the exact resemblance of these two specimens to each
other would seem to confirm the statement made by the residents near
Mount Whitney that the old and young wolverines in their locality do
not differ in appearance. A second specimen of wolverine is inter-
* Luteus buff.
DECEMBER, 1903. MAMMALS ELLIOT. 261
esting on account of the wide distribution of the species so long known,
and it is hoped that more examples and an understanding of its distri-
bution may ere long be obtained. Mount Whitney I believe is the
most southern locality in which a wolverine has been procured. The
skull of the type was badly broken, the animal having been killed by
a blow on the head.
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